CEDAW Concluding observations on Lithuania (excerpts), 2019

E.Principal areas of concern and recommendations


Participation in political and public life


29. Reiterating its previous recommendations ( CEDAW/C/LTU/CO/5 , para. 29), the Committee recommends that the State party strengthen its efforts to increase the representation of women in political life and adopt temporary special measures, including quotas for female candidates of political parties and heads of municipalities, to increase the participation of women, in particular rural women, women belonging to ethnic minority groups and women with disabilities, in political and public life, including in relation to women obtaining the highest diplomatic status and women having diplomatic status engaged in national representation, and in municipalities, in line with its general recommendation No. 23 (1997) on women in political and public life.



32.The Committee welcomes the steady decrease in the number of stateless persons, including stateless women, in the State party since 2012 and takes note that Lithuanian women may transmit their nationality to their foreign husbands. However, the Committee is concerned by the gender neutrality of the nationality legislation and the fact that there has been no change in the legislation as was previously recommended.

33. Reiterating its previous recommendation ( CEDAW/C/LTU/CO/5 , para. 31), the Committee encourages the State party to amend its national legislation to provide for the automatic granting of nationality to all children born in Lithuania, including Roma children, who would otherwise be stateless, and to bring its national citizenship legislation into line with the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure that women’s right to nationality is not affected in any way by the gender neutrality of the nationality legislation through, in particular, the provision of gender-sensitivity and gender-equality training to all officials working on this issue.


34.The Committee welcomes the creation of the National Agency for Education, in 2019, which is also mandated to promote gender equality and combat gender stereotyping, and the launch of the project “Quality basket”, aimed at improving learning achievements by pupils, including girls. It notes the high percentage of female researchers at universities and the increasing number of female students enrolling in previously male-dominated fields of study. However, the Committee remains concerned by the low number of women in leading academic positions. It regrets the lack of information on efforts to improve the level of inclusion of girls belonging to minority groups, in particular Roma girls, and girls with disabilities in schools, and on the impact of the higher education reform conducted in 2017 on matching the labour market needs of women, including the need to restructure vocational training programmes for women.

35. Reiterating its previous recommendations ( CEDAW/C/LTU/CO/5 , para. 33), and recalling its general recommendation No. 36 (2017) on the right of girls and women to education, the Committee recommends that the State party raise awareness among girls and boys, parents, teachers and political leaders about the importance of the education of girls at all levels as a basis for their empowerment, and recommends that the State party:


(c) Strengthen its measures to improve the inclusion of Roma girls and boys, as well as girls and boys with disabilities, in the mainstream education system, rather than placing them in schools with classes for children with special needs, and provide information, disaggregated by sex, in its next periodic report on school attendance and drop-out rates among the Roma population and children with disabilities;



36.The Committee welcomes the fact that the State party’s employment rate among women is the highest within the European Union and is almost on par with the employment rate among men and the introduction of a social insurance floor, which provides, inter alia, that women who are employed, including as part-time workers, must be socially insured at the level of the minimum wage, as well as the reversal which placed the burden of proof on the employer that the principle of equal pay for work of equal value is upheld. The Committee notes the planned raise of the pension age to 65 years for both women and men by 2026 and the measures to promote women in leadership positions and women’s entrepreneurship. The Committee nevertheless remains concerned about the following:


(b)Vertical and horizontal occupational segregation and the difficulties of integrating migrant women, Roma women, rural women, older women and women with disabilities into the labour market;


37. Recalling its previous recommendations ( CEDAW/C/LTU/CO/5 , para. 35), the Committee recommends that the State party:


(b) Strengthen measures to address horizontal and vertical occupational segregation and enhance access for women to the labour market, including for women who have reached pensionable age and disadvantaged groups of women, such as migrant women, Roma women, rural women, older women and women with disabilities, including under the action plan for the integration of Roma into Lithuanian society, 2015–2020, which is also aimed at the economic empowerment of Roma women;


Economic and social benefits and the economic empowerment of women

40.The Committee welcomes the adoption, in June 2019, of the package of basic services for families, aimed at strengthening the socioeconomic status of women and providing additional social benefits for mothers with five or more children. It also welcomes the plans to render the first two months of the parental leave quota, including leave for mothers and for fathers, non-transferrable for both parents, that grandparents may take similar leave and that the number of fathers availing themselves of paternity and/or parental leave has been rapidly increasing. However, it is concerned that the gains from the rapid economic development in the State party have not been equally shared, in particular by women and girls belonging to minority groups [..]


Document data: 12.11.2019 Link: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/LTU/CO/6%20 Also available in Russian, French and other UN languages.

Antisemitism Overview of data available in the EU 2008–2018 (excerpts), 2019

Reports and evidence from international organisations


Table 1: Observations and recommendations made to Member States of the
European Union by the Human Rights Committee (CCPR), the Committee on
the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) and by UN member states
through Universal Period Reviews (UPR) with regard to combating
antisemitism, 2018

Observations and recommendationsSource
LT The State party should: (a) Strengthen its efforts to combat
intolerance, stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards vulnerable and minority groups, including Roma, Jews, migrants, refugees, asylum seekers and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons, by, inter alia, increasing training for law enforcement personnel, prosecutors and the judiciary and conducting awareness-raising campaigns promoting sensitivity and respect for diversity among the general public.
O/4 (CCPR,


Use of IHRA working definition on antisemitism in the Member States


In 2018, the IHRA definition was adopted or endorsed by the governments of Lithuania, the Netherlands, Slovakia, and Belgium. The Prosecutor General‘s Office, the Police Department, and the State Security Department of Lithuania indicated to FRA that they rely on a definition of antisemitism that essentially corresponds to the IHRA definition.


National data on antisemitism



Official data

In 2018, the Lithuanian State Security Department (Valstybės saugumo departamentas) recorded one antisemitic incident (against an object related to the Jewish community). According to the data from the Prosecutor General‘s Office, one pre-trial investigation was initiated in 2018 under Article 169 of the Criminal Code alleging discrimination of a person on the grounds of their Jewish ethnicity; it was discontinued in the absence of
a criminal act.

In 2014–2017, three pre-trial investigations under Article 312 (2) of the Criminal Code were initiated – these concerned incidents where places of public respect had been desecrated for antisemitic reasons. All of these pre-trial investigations were discontinued because the offenders liable for the criminal offence were not identified.56

56 UN CERD (2018), CERD/C/LTU/9-10, 23/5/2018, paras. 37-51

The Lithuanian State Security Department recorded two antisemitic incidents in 2009, and one incident between January and July 2010.

The Prosecutor General’s Office reports on pre-trial investigations initiated under Article 170 of the Criminal Code (incitement against any national, racial, religious or other group); in 2008, 12 cases were initiated. In 2009, 20 % of pre-trial investigations under Article 170 involved an antisemitic motive, but the report does not provide the number of cases.57

57 Lithuania (2011), Collegiate Council of the Prosecutor’s Office of the Republic of Lithuania.

Unofficial data

No unofficial data were available at the time this report was compiled.

Document data: published 08.11.2019. Print ISBN 978-92-9474-752-5 PDF ISBN 978-92-9474-753-2 Link: https://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/fra-2019-antisemitism-overview-2008-2018_en.pdf

Presidential election 2019: ODIHR Final report (excerpts), 2019



Although ODIHR has previously recommended that the authorities increase the scope of voter education for national minorities, stakeholders described the reach of these materials as limited.




Although the office of the outgoing president was held by a woman,
women are underrepresented in politics.5 Some 21 per cent of current members of parliament are women, and only one sitting minister is a woman.

5 See also paragraph 28 of the 2014 UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women concluding observations: “The Committee commends the State party on the high percentage of women in its civil service and on the fact that two of the three highest State officials are women. The Committee is nonetheless concerned that no special measures have been applied as part of a comprehensive strategy to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women and men in political and public life and to promote the participation of women from disadvantaged groups, such as rural women, women from ethnic minorities and women with disabilities, in political and public life”.




The CEC produced some voter education materials in the Polish and Russian
languages which were published on the CEC website and in newspapers, and the CEC’s information hotline operated in Lithuanian, English and Russian. By law, ballot papers may only be provided in the Lithuanian language. Stakeholders informed the ODIHR EAM that the reach of
voter information is limited among minority communities and that their participation in the election remains below average. ODIHR has previously recommended that the authorities increase efforts to provide comprehensive voter education to national minorities.




The law provides for the participation of national minorities in electoral processes on an equal basis. One of the candidates, nominated by the Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania, conducted his campaign mostly in minority languages, reaching out to the ethnic-Polish and Russian communities. However, the campaign materials of most candidates featured only Lithuanian language content, and the rights of national minorities did not emerge as a campaign topic in their programmes.
Campaign-related events were aired by the public broadcaster only in the Lithuanian language, without subtitles. Some ODIHR EAM interlocutors noted instances of hate speech by individuals against national minority groups in social media and online news portals.46

46 See also paragraph 11 of the 2018 CCPR Concluding Observations and paragraph 25 of the 2016 European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance report.


Document data: 26.09.2019 Link: https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/lithuania/433352?download=true

Report on Anti-Semitism, by the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion (excerpts), 2019

IV. Key findings


F. Government measures that may infringe upon freedom of religion or belief


Non-stunned slaughter is banned in Slovenia67 and is highly regulated in Austria, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Slovakia.68

68 See www.loc.gov/law/help/religious-slaughter/europe.php.


G. Monitoring and reporting antisemitism


50. The aforementioned myriad forms of antisemitism are reflected in the working definition of antisemitism adopted by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance in 2016.76 The product of an initiative first undertaken in 2005 by the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia, the working definition was developed as a non-legal tool to facilitate more accurate and uniform monitoring of antisemitism across the countries that have adopted it and to educate officials and the broader public about the diverse forms of antisemitism

76 See www.holocaustremembrance.com/working-definition-antisemitism


53. The definition has been adopted by a number of countries and agencies, 77 [..]

77 As at August 2019, the working definition had been adopted by Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechia, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Lithuania, North Macedonia, the Netherlands, the Republic of Moldova, Romania, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. It is also used by the United States Department of State and Department of Education, and by the Ministry of Education of Greece.

Document data: 20.09.2019 A/74/358 Link: https://undocs.org/A/74/358

Modern laws of Lithuania (excerpts)

Law on Equal Treatment

Article 2. Definitions


9. Direct discrimination means any situation where one person is treated less favourably than another is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation on the grounds of gender, race, nationality, language, origin, social status, belief, convictions or views, age, sexual orientation, disability, ethnic origin or religion, except for the following cases:


2) requirement to know the state language as established by laws;

3) prohibition of participation in political activities in the cases specified by laws;

4) different rights applied on the basis of citizenship as established by laws;


Law on the provision of information to the public

Article 34. Language in which Public Information is Produced and Disseminated

1. Public information shall be produced and disseminated in the state language or any other language pursuant to this Law and the Law on the State Language as well as the resolutions of the State Commission on the Lithuanian Language, except for the cases specified in this Law. Producers and disseminators of public information, in cooperation with the competent state and municipal institutions and agencies, shall, where possible, ensure that the disseminated public information is accessible to the disabled. 

2. Radio and/or television programmes broadcast in a language other than Lithuanian must be translated into Lithuanian or shown with Lithuanian subtitles, except for educational, occasional, special, music and re-broadcast foreign radio and/or television programmes or parts of programmes as well as programmes produced by broadcasters of radio and/or television programmes intended for the ethnic minorities of Lithuania. The Commission, taking into account the needs of ethnic minorities residing in the coverage zone of broadcast radio and/or television programmes, where necessary, when specifying the terms and conditions of the licence may determine the share of broadcast and/or re-broadcast radio and/or television programmes or parts thereof which must be comprised of radio and/or television programmes or parts of programmes in the languages of the ethnic minorities.

3. Broadcasters of television programmes shall be prohibited from showing audiovisual works which have been translated from an official EU language into a non EU language.

4. When re-broadcasting television programmes, re-broadcasters and/or other persons providing services of dissemination of television programmes or individual programmes via the Internet for users of the Republic of Lithuania must give priority to the official EU languages. Television programmes in the official languages of the European Union as well as the non-official languages of the European Union and originating in another Member State must comprise at least 90 per cent of the programmes when providing services of dissemination of television programmes or individual programmes via the Internet for users of the Republic of Lithuania and/or at least 90 per cent of re-broadcast television programmes in each basic television programme package presented for their users. This requirement shall not apply to television programme packages disseminated for an additional pay. Where there is a possibility to choose between the official EU language or any other language to re-broadcast and/or disseminate via the Internet the same television programme, the re-broadcasters and/or other persons providing services of dissemination of television programmes or individual programmes via the Internet for users of the Republic of Lithuania must provide all the conditions for the television programme or an individual programme to be re-broadcast or disseminated via the Internet in the official language of the European Union.

5. A television programme which is re-broadcast and/or disseminated via the Internet in a non-official language of the European Union, where such a television programme is translated into an official language of the European Union or shown with the subtitles in an official language of the European Union, shall be is equated with a programme re-broadcast and/or disseminated via the Internet in an official language of the European Union.

6. When a television programme is broadcast, re-broadcast and/or disseminated via the Internet in several languages, including the official EU languages, such a programme shall be regarded as a programme transmitted and/or disseminated in an official EU language only where, if technical possibilities allow, this programme is transmitted and/or disseminated to users with the default setting in an official EU language and the additional language selection is only possible at the user‘s discretion.

Document data for the Law on Equal Treatment. Up-to-date Lithuanian text https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/TAR.0CC6CB2A9E42/asr Somewhat outdated English text (there, the same provisions were in paragraph 7 of Article 2) https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/TAIS.389500?jfwid=-oo3xjf4tu Notably, in the other cases mentioned in the same paragraph, some substantive justification is needed for different treatment to be legal – in cases of language and citizenship requirements, however, arbitrariness of the legislative gets accepted.

Document data for the Law on the provision of information to the public: https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/c4a1511305c611e8802fc9918087744d

Other laws related to the use of languages can be found in English at http://www.vlkk.lt/en/ For the provisions on liability for violating legislation on the use of languages, see Articles 497-503 of the Code of Administrative Offences (no English version was found) https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalActEditions/lt/TAD/b8d908c0215b11e58a4198cd62929b7a

Report on the implementation of national Roma integration strategies (excerpts), 2019





1.1. Focus of measures


Distribution of education measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-areaMS
Fight early school-leaving AT, BE, BG, CY, ES, EL, HU, HR, IT, LV, LT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SE, SK, UK
Consider the needs of individual pupilsAT, CY, CZ, ES, HU, IT, LV, LT, LU, PT, RO, SE, SI, UK
Encourage Roma participation in – and completion of – secondary and tertiary educationAT, BG, HR, CZ, ES, HU, LT, LU, PT, RO, SK
Increase the access to and quality of early childhood education and careAT, BG, HR, CY, CZ, ES, HU, IT, LU, NL, RO, SI, SK
Eliminate school segregationAT, BE, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, IT, LU, NL, RO, SK
Use inclusive and tailor-made teaching and learning methodsAT, BG, HR, CY, CZ, LT, LU, NL, RO, SI, SK, UK
Support the acquisition of skills adapted to labour market needsAT, BG, CZ, EL, ES, LT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SI, SK
Support transition between educational levelsAT, BG, CZ, ES, HU, HR, IT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SK
Encourage parental involvementAT, BE, BG, CY, ES, HR, LV, LT, LU, RO, SK
Improve teacher trainingAT, BG, CY, CZ, ES, LT, RO, SE, SI, SK
Promote extracurricular activities AT, BG, CY, EL, IT, LV, LT, RO, SI, SK
Widen access to second-chance education and adult learning AT, BG, CY, CZ, EL, ES, HR, LT. LU, UK
Fight illiteracy AT, BG, CY, HU, ES, HR, NL, RO
Prevent inappropriate placement of Roma in special needs schoolsAT, CZ, ES, HR, RO, SK


1.2. Achievements and challenges

The most widespread achievement mentioned by NRCPs in the area of education is mediation9 . Other achievements include: development of kindergarten capacities10; improved support to fighting and monitoring early school-leaving 11 ; and including Roma inclusion and non-discrimination related topics in teacher training or national curricula12 .

9 AT, FR, EL, ES, IT, LV, RO

10 e.g. CZ, SK

11 e.g. HU, ES, LV

12 e.g. AT, ES, IT, PT

The most significant challenges highlighted by NRCPs include: school participation, absenteeism, early school-leaving, the transition from primary to secondary and the completion of secondary education. 13 Other challenges include: fighting segregation 14 ; ensuring and developing human capacities15; cooperation among stakeholders16; promoting early childhood education and care;17 adult learning and second chance education18; and data availability19 .

13 AT, CY, EE, EL, ES, FR, HR, LT, NL

14 EL, ES, HR, RO

15 EL, LV, SE, SK

16 ES, LT, LV, PL

17 BG, EL, ES

18 AT, BG, EL

19 HR, IT, PT

1.3. Policy learning


Promising approaches:
BG, CZ, DK, EL, FI, FR, HR, HU, LT, PL, SK: Introduction or extension of obligatory (free) preschool, ESIF funded development of kindergartens, training for kindergarten teachers
CY, EL, ES, IE, IT, HR, HU, LT, LV, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI: Programmes aimed at preventing school drop-out of Roma (girls) through afterschool support, tutoring, scholarships, mentoring, mediation, assistants, second chance education, teacher training, support to families
AT, CY, FI, HU, IE, IT, PT, RO: Introducing Roma history (including the Holocaust) and/or culture in national curricula
IE, HR, RO: Allocation of places to Roma in secondary and tertiary education
LT: Network of schools attended by Roma children receiving capacity building and competence development
SE: Teachers training (Södertörn University) and secondary-level adult education in Romani



2.1. Focus of measures


Distribution of employment measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-areaMS
Eliminate labour market barriers, including discriminationAT, BE, CY, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, LT, LU, NL, PT, RO, SK
Provide personalised guidance to individual job-seekersAT, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HU, HR, LV, LU, NL, RO, SI, SK
Support vocational training AT, BG, CY, ES, LV, LU, NL, RO, SK
Support lifelong learning and skills development AT, BG, ES, HR, HU, LV, LT, LU, NL, PT
Support self-employment and entrepreneurshipAT, BG, HR, CZ, EL, ES, HU, LT
Support first work experienceAT, BG, CY, CZ, EL, ES, HR,
Support on-the-job trainingBG, CZ, ES, HU, LV, LU, SK
Provide equal access to mainstream public employment servicesBG, HR, CZ, HU, LV, SK, ES, UK
Promote employment opportunities within the civil serviceEL, HU, NL, SK


2.2. Achievements and challenges

In their reporting on 2017, several NRCPs referred to the positive impact of economic growth on the prospects for Roma employment21. But even more NRCPs referred to targeted measures, such as regional employment programmes (career-counselling, vocational or on-the-job training and job matching tailored to Roma or vulnerable job-seekers)22. Such measures are even more effective when Roma are involved as mediators, social workers, or other service providers.

21 BG, ES, HR

22 AT, BG, CZ, ES, FR, HR, HU, LV, NL, SK

NRCPs emphasise three main types of challenges: capacity of implementing structures 23 ; discrimination against Roma24; and attitudes and trust of Roma themselves25 .

23 AT, EL, PL, PT, SK

24 EE, ES, LT, LV, NL, PT, RO

25 BG, EE, FR, NL, PT

2.3. Policy learning


Promising approaches:
٠ BG, CY, ES, IT, LV, NL, PT, SI: Regional or local employment programmes (individualised counselling) to promote active job-seeking or self-employment
٠ HU, EL, ES, FR: Targeted programmes to improve the employability of Roma women (in the social sector)
٠ IT, LT, HU: Examples of cooperation with employers for job placements for Roma and fighting stereotypes
٠ SK: Amendment of the Act on Public Employment Services providing for an individual action plan to support labour market integration binding the jobseeker and the labour office
٠ BE: Since 2016, Roma have access to the ‘integration path’ set up for people of foreign origin in Wallonia (courses on French language, basic knowledge of society; support to find employment and children’s schooling). Municipalities employ Roma mediators in public social assistance centres, prevention or proximity services
٠ HR: Ombudsman’s office gives antidiscrimination training to public employment officers and other civil servants
٠ UK: Race disparity audit and website to collect and disseminate information on discrimination in employment



3.1. Focus of measures

Distribution of health measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-areaMS
Remove barriers to healthcareAT, BE, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, IT, RO, SE, SK, UK
Promote health awarenessAT, BG, CZ, EL, ES, HR, HU, IT, LV, NL, SE, SI, SK, UK,
Improve access to free vaccination programmes targeting children and groups most at riskAT, BG, EL, HR, HU, SK, UK
Improve access to medical check-ups, prenatal and postnatal care and family planningAT, ES, HU, SI, SK, UK


3.2. Achievements and challenges

The achievements most often mentioned by NRCPs are: vaccination campaigns26; other prevention and detection programmes 27; improving hygiene, health conditions and access to healthcare 28 ; awareness raising29; health mediation30; and multi-stakeholder cooperation involving national and local authorities and civil society31. There was a notable lack of reference to antidiscrimination efforts; improving hygienic living conditions; and access to healthy food.

26 EL, FR, HU, HR

27 HU, PL, SI

28 AT, HU, RO

29 CZ, HU, LT, SI

30 FR, RO, SE, SK

31 BG, RO

Challenges reported include: lack of coordination and effective communication between the national and local levels; maintaining appropriate (national or EU) funding or staffing32; lack of self-consciousness on health matters 33; lack of health insurance coverage among Roma 34 ; and insufficient knowledge of health professionals on Roma issues.35 There was also concern about low vaccination rates among Roma, which in some countries are reported to contribute to higher premature mortality and morbidity rates36. Participation and empowerment of Roma in health care initiatives is considered challenging, also due to low literacy and language barriers37 .

32 EL, HU, LT, SE, RO

33 BG, CZ, EL, HR

34 BG, ES, HR, RO

35 AT, CZ,

36 ES, EL

37 BG, PL, SK

3.3. Policy learning


Promising approaches:
٠ BG, CZ, DK, EL, FR, HU, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK: Training and employment of Roma health mediators (assistants, visitors, bridge builders) to promote Roma access to healthcare
٠ AT, BG, EL, FR, HU, HR, PL, SK, UK: Vaccination campaigns targeting Roma (girls, women), and those living in marginalised areas
٠ CZ, IT, RO, SI, SK: Long-term national health programmes, action plans, strategies
٠ ES: Ensuring Roma and civil participation in the design of health prevention and training programmes for social service professionals
٠ FI: Roma Wellbeing Study by the National Institute for Health and Welfare
٠ PT: Evidence-based planning of interventions to fight health inequalities of Roma, including information and awareness raising materials on teenage motherhood, paediatric follow-up and healthy eating habits
٠ LT: Health awareness seminars on preventive care, sexual and reproductive health and childcare targeting Roma women and youth



4.1. Focus of measures


Distribution of health measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-areaMS
Ensure access to public utilities and infrastructure for housingBE, BG, CY, EL, ES, HR, RO, SI, SK, UK
Eliminate spatial segregation and promote desegregationAT, BE, BG, EL, ES, HU, IT, LT, RO, SK, UK
Promote non-discriminatory access to social housingAT, CZ, EL, ES, HU, IT, LT, LV, RO, SI, SK, UK
Ensure that urban regeneration projects include integrated housing interventions for marginalised communities BE, BG, ES, HR, HU, IT, SK
Promote community-led local development and/or integrated territorial investments supported by the ESIFES, HR, HU, IT
Provide halting sites for non-sedentiary RomaAT, UK


4.2. Achievements and challenges

NRCPs reported that the most significant achievements were in access to social housing38. Another important cluster of achievements mentioned by several NRCPs was the elimination of slums and spatial segregation39. NRCPs also referred to results in the provision of halting sites40, access to public utilities (such as water, electricity and gas) and infrastructure for housing41; the legalisation of housing42; and in urban regeneration43 .

38 AT, CZ, EL, HU, LV, LT, PT, RO

39 ES, FR, HU, IT, LT

40 FR, NL

41 SI

42 HR

43 BG

Reported challenges include: spatial segregation44; barriers for Roma to access housing in the private sector45; as well as public support for and legislation on access to social housing46 .

44 BG, CY, ES, SK

45 ES, LT, LV, NL

46 CZ, BG

4.3. Policy learning


Promising approaches:
٠ ES: Local and regional governments with NGO support have significantly reduced the prevalence of shanty towns over the past 15 years leading to desegregation as part of an integrated approach with sustainable improvements in education, health and employment
٠ CZ: ESIF support scaling up local ‘housing first’ initiatives, built on models of successful social housing pilot by local governments and social rental agency by NGOs, excluding housing in segregated areas (methodology to identify residential segregation piloted by the Ministry of Labour and 12 municipalities)
٠ EL: New regulations to promote: relocation from camps and settlements; improvement of infrastructure; creation of self-management and protection system of residential complexes; and rent subsidy for finding a home in integrated settings
٠ FR: Multi-stakeholder comprehensive ‘housing first’ approach in Toulouse to help Roma move from camps to integrated areas, accompanied by social support, literacy and other training, access to education, employment and healthcare
٠ SI: Public tenders for basic communal infrastructure (water, electricity, roads) targeting municipalities where Roma live
٠ LT: Desegregation process in the Kirtimai settlement in Vilnius by relocation combined with offer of social housing with subsidised rent to families with many children.
٠ SE: Guidance and training for landlords to increase knowledge and fight discrimination against Roma



1. Focus of measures


Distribution of non-discrimination measures by relevance to the respective sub-areas of the Council Recommendation

Thematic sub-areaMS
Fight antigypsyism by raising awareness about the benefits of Roma integrationAT, BE, BG, CZ, ES, IT, LT, LV, PT, SK, SE
Fight antigypsyism by raising awareness on diversityAT, BE, BG, CZ, EE, ES, IT, LT, LV, PT, SE, SK
Fight antigypsyism by combatting Anti-Roma rhetoric and hate speechAT, BG, CZ, ES, HU, IT, LT, LV, SK, UK
Fight violence, including domestic violence, against women and girlsAT, ES, IT, NL
Fight (multiple) discrimination faced by children and women involving all relevant stakeholders AT, ES, IT, NL
Fight underage and forced marriages AT, NL
Ensure the effective practical enforcement of Directive 2000/43/ECCZ, HR, IT, LT
Fight trafficking in human beingsAT, HU
Implement desegregation measures regionally and locallyHU, NL, UK
Ensure that eviction are in full compliance with EU law and international human rights obligationsIT
Fight begging involving children, through the enforcement of legislationAT
Promote the cooperation between Member States in situations with cross-border dimensionAT


2. Achievements and challenges

The achievements most often mentioned by NRCPs were: improving the conditions of Roma women and children47; combating antigypsyism by breaking stereotypes or promoting Roma culture and history 48 ; and involving all relevant actors (public authorities, civil society and Roma communities) in efforts to promote anti-discrimination49 .

47 BG, EE, ES, HU, HR, PT, SK

48 ES, FR, HU, LV

49 IT, ES, SI

Several NRCPs referred to challenges of improving access to legal protection and rights awareness50, as well as difficulties in fighting against stereotypes51 and improving the situation of Roma women and children.52 The mere fact that several Member States53 – including some with large Roma communities and several with very high rates of perceived discrimination among Roma – did not report any antidiscrimination measures underlines the gravity of challenges in this area.

50 AT, CZ, LT, PT

51 EE, ES, HR, LV

52 BG, ES, SK

53 CY, FR, EL, PL, RO


Document data: 06.09.2019 Link [with annexes not quoted here]: https://ec.europa.eu/info/publications/report-implementation-national-roma-integration-strategies-2019_en